At the point when you start to find out about test automation, you may go over the expression “Test automation framework”. Perhaps some of you get overwhelmed with this term and start to feel that it is something that is tough to understand and considerably more hard to execute. The Test Automation Framework  is nothing but  a set of rules.

Firstly, let us understand what is Test Automation Framework?

It is a platform where all the required sets of tools, libraries, and all the specialized components for Test Automation in a sole spot are what we call Test Automation Framework.

Let’s see an example for better understanding. Suppose you go to a railway platform and you want to board a train, then all the necessary information regarding how to get in and out of the train will be available at a single place, which makes it easy to board the train. Like there is an information center, ticket counter, and a resting area all at a single place. Imagine if these were in different far places, then it would not be easy to board a train.

Similarly, the automation framework will provide all the required features for test automation in a single destination!

The testing framework is responsible for

  • Executing the tests

  • Reporting the results

Why do we need an automation testing framework?

Imagine when you have to run a bunch of codes multiple times with different builds to test the application again, and again, it is very time-consuming!

So, this is where we need the hand of automation testing Framework because it helps the team to organize test suites and also helps to improve the efficiency of testing. 

Manual Test takes a lot of time than we think it would, and that is an apparent reason why we need a Test automation framework.

The Test Automation framework design provides the user with various benefits that help them develop, execute, and report the automation test scripts efficiently.

Types of Test Automation Framework

Now Let’s have a look at some of the most popular test automation frameworks:

1. Linear Scripting Framework:

The other name for the linear scripting framework is the ‘Record and Playback’ Framework. It is considered the simplest of all frameworks. Small-sized applications are tested using this Framework. It follows a simple approach with no reusability. In this process, the tester records each step, such as navigation, user input, or checkpoints, and then automatically plays the script back to conduct the test. For each test case, the creation and execution of test scripts happen individually.


  • No need to write custom code.

  • The fastest way to generate test scripts.


  • Lack of re-usability.

  • Maintenance is considered a hassle.

2. Modular Testing Framework:

In this Framework, the complete application under test is broken into smaller, independent modules. Then the tester creates test scripts individually. A key strategy in using the modular Framework is to build an abstraction layer so that any changes made in individual sections won’t affect the overarching module.


  • Test scripts are reusable.

  • To make changes, if any, to the application, we need to fix only the test scripts of the particular individual module, and hence there is no need to touch other modules.


  • To set up this Framework, programming knowledge is necessary.

  • Does not use multiple data sets.

3. Data-Driven Testing Framework:

In this Framework, testers can store the data externally. It allows us to create test automation scripts by passing through different sets of test data. Test Data is read from the external files (Excel Files, Text Files, CSV Files, ODBC Sources, DAO Objects, ADO Objects).


  • Saves time.

  • Multiple data sets are for test execution.


  • Need a significant amount of time to set up this Framework.

  • Testers who work on this Framework need to have hands-on programming language to develop test scripts.

4. Keyword Driven Testing Framework:

It is also known as table-driven testing or action based testing framework. In a keyword-driven test, the documentation of the functionality of the application-under-test should be in a table. It performs automation test scripts based on the keywords specified in the excel sheet. Keyword, Application Map, Component Function are the three essential components of the Keyword-driven testing framework.


  • Doesn’t require much programming skills.

  • The code is reusable.


  • It is complex and time-consuming.

  • Initial Set up the cost of the Framework is high.

5. Hybrid Testing Framework:

As the name suggests, it is the combination of two or more previously mentioned frameworks.  We can adapt a hybrid framework to get the best test results. In the current market, most of the teams are building this Framework.


  • Quickest and less costly approach to build automation scripts because of code re-usability.

  • Useful to automate any application.


  • For common code and business logic code, there are no separate function libraries.

  • To maintain reports for test results, error logs there is no reporting mechanism.


The above-mentioned framework is the most common frameworks in use by the testing  fraternity. Test automation using test automation framework has numerous points of interest (advantages), for example, quicker defect identification, reusable test scripts  and least intervention by  people while running the test scripts. Henceforth, Test automation Framework plays a vital role in automation testing and is an essential part of any successful automation testing process. So, choose the Framework that suits best to your project.